FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects

[07-26-2016] ...These medicines are associated with disabling and potentially permanent side effects of the tendons, muscles, joints, nerves, and central nervous system that can occur together in the same patient. As a result, we revised the Boxed Warning, FDA’s strongest warning, to address these serious safety issues.

[07-10-2018] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is strengthening the current warnings in the prescribing information that fluoroquinolone antibiotics may cause significant decreases in blood sugar and certain mental health side effects. The low blood sugar levels can result in serious problems, including coma, particularly in older people and patients with diabetes who are taking medicines to reduce blood sugar.

[12-20-2018] A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review found that fluoroquinolone antibiotics can increase the occurrence of rare but serious events of ruptures or tears in the main artery of the body, called the aorta. These tears, called aortic dissections, or ruptures of an aortic aneurysm can lead to dangerous bleeding or even death. They can occur with fluoroquinolones for systemic use given by mouth or through an injection. Fluoroquinolones should not be used in patients at increased risk unless there are no other treatment options available.

See Cipro Black Box Warning here.

See Levaquin Black Box Warning here.

Look up the labels for other drugs here.

Looking for solutions to help protect your cells? Click here.

Have you been floxed*?

We have! More and more people are discovering that many of their serious health conditions can be traced to the antibiotics they took. Read the full transcript of the medical conference below, if you want to hear some horror stories! (But be sure to see the rest of THIS website for some GOOD news!)

My husband was prescribed Cipro in 2020 for a UTI, and had some serious side effects.

It wasn't until he took Cipro a second time, and the side effects worsened, that I researched fluoroquinolones, and was horrified - yes HORRIFIED - at what I learned! It was only then that I dug out my medical records and realized that - horrors! - I too had taken a fluoroquinolone drug!

(If you want the graphic, gory details about what these dangerous antibiotics do to human DNA and the resulting, debilitating side effects, click here. Then you too will be horrified and terrified, like I was.)

I was prescribed Levaquin in 2013 for a burst appendix, and didn't notice any side effects, except perhaps an exacerbation of insomnia.

I wondered why my husband's reaction was so much worse than mine, so I began to study everything I could find regarding fluoroquinolones, in an effort to help him recover. In the course of my research, I noticed something very interesting...I recognized some terms I'd seen before: Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress. I thought, where have I heard those before? And I remembered: in my education about the water machine in our kitchen...the medical-grade machine that produces Electrolyzed Reduced Water.

Could this be a partial answer?

When I had the emergency appendectomy, the doctor told me I'd be in the hospital for 10 days. I had my husband bring me fresh Electrolyzed Reduced Water to the hospital, and I drank it all day long. Why did I do this? Because I knew that this water was better than the fluids in the IVs or the hospital's tap water.

The doctor was amazed when I was ready to be released on Day 4! He'd told me 10 days, but I went home in 4!

I had already alleviated many other major health conditions when I started drinking this water a few years prior, so I naturally continued to drink it after the surgery. One of my friends, a Registered Nurse, told me she'd never seen anyone recover so fast from a burst appendix!

Now, contrast that with my husband, who didn't drink any water after 3pm because he didn't want to have to go to the bathroom while teaching class. So he didn't drink much of this water. (Needless to say, he drinks it now! All day long!)

I wondered if the water might be a factor in our responses to the antibiotics. So I dug out the medical research studies on the water, and the lightbulb went on in my head. I hadn't seen anyone else make this connection, so I decided to create this website, to share what I had discovered.

No medical claims are made. I invite you to read this, and draw your own conclusions. Yes, I realize it's rather technical, but really, you can get the gist of it quickly by simply reading the parts highlighted in yellow.

If, like me, you have an AHA! moment and the lightbulb goes on in your head, then contact me to learn more about the benefits of Electrolyzed Reduced Water**. In my opinion, based on the compelling research and my own personal experience from working with hundreds of people drinking this water, I believe it's the single most important foundation to health, as well as to any recovery protocol.

There are many resources available to learn more about the side effects from fluoroquinolones, but this site specifically addresses some very pertinent information regarding fluoroquinolones (FQs) causing oxidative stress, from The European Medicines Agency Public Hearing on Quinolone and Fluoroquinolone*** Medicines; as well as some possibly relevant research showing Electrolyzed Reduced Water's ability to protect cells from oxidative damage.

So apparently FQ's connection to Oxidative Stress is an important key to understanding why side effects can be so severe. Could this also be a key to consider in our response to these side effects?

See important excerpts below, particularly the parts in yellow!

* floxed: Not to be confused with the DNA sequencing term, the term floxed is also used to refer to the potentially devastating side effects from fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

** Terms for Electrolyzed Reduced Water: Electrochemically Reduced Water, Alkaline Reduced Water, Reduced Water, ERW, ARW

*** fluoroquinolone is pronounced (flor-o-KWIN-o-lone)

Looking for solutions to help protect your DNA? Click here

Pharmaceutical companies market antibiotics under various brand names. The left column in the table below displays common antibiotic brand names, while the column on the right displays the class of antibiotic.

Brand NameAntibiotic Class
Avelox, Vigamox, Moxifloxmoxifloxacin
Ofloxacin (Generic brand)ofloxacin
...and any other antibiotic ending in: -floxin, -floxacin, or -lox

Note: Other drugs may be added over time, so this list is not comprehensive.
Click here to see a list of currently available FDA-approved Fluoroquinolones

Excerpted from: Public Hearing on Quinolone and Fluoroquinolone Medicines, European Medicines Agency, 25 June 2018 EMA/225564/2018

Source: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/other/public-hearing-quinolone-fluoroquinolone-written-interventions_en.pdf

Speaker 8. Jaroslaw Linka

1) What is your view on the role of quinolones and fluoroquinolones in the treatment of infections?

Fluoroquinolone (FQs) antibiotics ...belong to the group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, effective for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. FQs employ their antibacterial effect by preventing bacterial DNA from unwinding and duplicating through inhibition of their topoisomerase and gyrase, which differentiate them from other common antibacterial agents. This mechanism places them closer to chemotherapy drugs then other antibiotics, which mostly interfere with specific steps in homeostatic cell wall biosynthesis...


2) What is your view of the risks associated with quinolone and fluoroquinolone use?

According to the latest research and available literature, FQs toxicity results from many causes, including the formation of reactive oxygen species, and generation of oxidative stress damage of the mitochondrial DNA, as well as from the chelation of metals and a change in gene expression. These mechanisms explain the reason why FQs are often reported, to cause permanent and serious side effects to: tendon, muscles, joints, nerves and other organs. Other long-lasting problems involve the cardiovascular system (QT interval prolongation), musculoskeletal system disorders (arthropathy, muscle weakness, joint pain and swelling), chronic fatigue and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, FQs have recently been discovered to induce delayed adverse neuropsychiatric effects including dizziness, sleep disturbance, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, hallucinations, psychosis, depression and recurrent mania. All the side effects should be mentioned on the patient info label, especially including psychiatric and potential delayed mitochondrial toxicity (like mitochondrial DNA depletion and mutations).

Looking for solutions to help protect your DNA? Click here

Excerpted from: Treatment of the Fluoroquinolone-Associated Disability: The Pathobiochemical Implications

Authors: Krzysztof Michalak, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Marcin Włodarczyk, Justyna Sobolewska, Piotr Woźniak, and Bogusław Sobolewski

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632915/

One of the main effects generated by FQs in cells is connected with the oxidative stress (OS)...The main aspect of OS involves the overdosed leakage of electrons from the electron transport chain (ETC)...Good understanding of the OS state is very important for understanding the consequences of OS generation by FQs...

Many papers present the existence of OS induced by FQs, for example, Pouzaud et al. [73]...

Talla and Veerareddy [76] examined the OS parameters in the blood after CIP, LEV, and GAT therapy on SOD3 (extracellular), glutathione, plasma antioxidant status, and lipid peroxides evaluated at 53 patients on different dosage regiments up to 5 days. The significant elevation of lipid peroxide was observed in patients treated with CIP and LEV. The substantial depletion in SOD3 and glutathione was observed especially in CIP patients. All three FQs reduced the plasma antioxidant status, but especially CIP and LEV.

Liu et al. [77] determined the effect of ENR on the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), mitochondrion membrane potential (ΔΨm), and apoptosis in the hepatic cell line of grass carp. The doses of 50, 100, and 200 ug/mL increased the LDH release and MDA concentration, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced the ΔΨm compared to the control. The highest dose of 200 ug/mL also significantly reduced T-AOC.

All the above-presented experiments show the increased OS state after FQ treatment…

...One of the cellular symptoms present in the FQ-charged cells is the reduction of the mitochondrial potential ΔΨm [37387779]; however, the detailed mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. Since the main mitochondrion uncoupling factor is the PTP, the reasons of the reduced ΔΨm should be searched between factors that regulate PTP opening. The first possibility is the OS by itself being generated by FQs. 

If new research would confirm the existence of FQs in the cells and mitochondria in the amounts making possible their permanent interactions with proteins and cations even after many years of FQ application, the research must focus on methods on how to remove FQs from strong protein and cation complexes. The simplest way seems to be the application of increased doses of metal cations Fe2+, Cu+, Mn2+, Zn2+, and Mg2+ which are natural FQ-competitors for protein-binding sites. It should be pointed that bivalent metal ions enter the cell to some degree due to the negative membrane potential of the cell and, next, enter the mitochondria due to the negative value of mitochondrial potential ΔΨm. The Nernst equation  defines the equilibrium between the ion concentration gradient and voltage across the membrane. If the membrane voltage ΔV/ΔΨm decreases, the concentration equilibrium gradient cin/cout of bivalent ions decreases significantly as well, because the lowered potential may not be able to pull bivalent cations into the cell/mitochondrium up to the required concentration...

...Until detailed knowledge concerning FQ toxicity would be recognized, the following directions in supporting FQAD patients are proposed according to the known and probable mechanisms of FQ toxicity:(a)Reduction of the oxidative stress…

...There are thousands of natural substances which possess the antioxidant capacity and which are able to reduce free radicals leaked from ETC. One should, however, remember that they work as one to one. It means that, as a rule, ****they are not reduced in the cell after free radical annihilation in order to work in cycle. They only reduce the size of free radical damage.

****Apparently ERW is an exception. Scroll down to read about its action in protecting cells.

Want to learn more about how ERW can help protect your DNA from Oxidative Stress Damage? Click here

Reactive Oxygen Species Production Is a Major Factor Directing the Postantibiotic Effect of Fluoroquinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Authors: M.T. Garcia, M.V. Valenzuela, M.J. Ferrandiz, A.G. delaCampa

DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00737-19

Source: https://aac.asm.org/content/63/8/e00737-19.abstract


These results show that reactive oxygen species are the main factors directing the postantibiotic effect of levofloxacin and moxifloxacin in S. pneumoniae.

Oxidative Stress Induced by Fluoroquinolones on Treatment for Complicated Urinary Tract Infections in Indian Patients

Authors: TallaV - Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hyderabad

P.R.Veerareddy1 Department of Pharmaceutics, St Peters' Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0975148311340071


In conclusion ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin induce more reactive oxygen species that lead to cell damage than gatifloxacin irrespective of their concentrations in patient population.

Want to learn how to protect your cells from Reactive Oxygen Species damage? Click here

Fluoroquinolone-Induced Tendinopathy: Etiology and Preventive Measures

Authors: Ferda Kaleagasioglu, Ercan Olcay

Source: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/226/4/226_4_251/_article


The subsequent FQ-related oxidative stress disturbs mitochondrial functions, leading to apoptosis. ROS overproduction also has direct cytotoxic effects on extracellular matrix components. Understanding the mechanisms of the FQ-associated tendinopathy may enable designing safer therapeutic strategies, hence optimization of clinical response. In this review, we evaluate multi-factorial etiology of the FQ-induced tendinopathy and discuss proposed preventive measures such as antioxidant use...

Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Authors: Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.

Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9169001/


Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be 'active hydrogen'. 'Active hydrogen' can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.

PMID: 9169001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;135(2):133-44.

Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.

Authors: Lee MY, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ.

Department of Genetic Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-600, Korea.

Source: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1385/ABAB:135:2:133


The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid.

PMID: 17159237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

To learn where to get Electrolyzed Reduced Water, Click here

The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis

Authors: Kokichi Hanaoka 1, Dongxu Sun, Richard Lawrence, Yoshinori Kamitani, Gabriel Fernandes

PMID: 14871602

DOI: 10.1016/j.bpc.2003.08.007

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14871602/


We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.

Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

Authors: Taichi Kashiwagi, Hanxu Yan, Takeki Hamasaki, Tomoya Kinjo, Noboru Nakamichi, Kiichiro Teruya, Shigeru Kabayama, Sanetaka Shirahata

Source: "Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 869121, 18 pages, 2014.

DOI: 10.1155/2014/869121


Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types...When these cell lines were treated with ERW alone (0 μM H2O2) the number of viable cells did not increase compared to that of the controls (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Therefore, the results indicate that ERW suppresses neuronal cell death caused by H2O2-induced oxidative damage.

...ERW was found to protect N1E-115, PC12, SFME, and MCCNP cells from oxidative stresses caused by H2O2, glutamate, and SNP treatments. This neuronal cell protection stemmed from the ROS specific scavenging ability of dissolved hydrogen and Pt nps in the ERW. The present communication provides encouraging data for the therapeutic applicability of ERW against NDs*.

*Neurodegenerative Disorders

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The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles

Authors: Yan, H., Kashiwaki, T., Hamasaki, T. et al.
Source: The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc 5, P69 (2011).

DOI: 10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P69


ERW significantly reduced the cell death induced by H2O2 pretreatment (Figure 1). ERW also scavenged the intracellular ROS and prevented the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production induced by ROS.

Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

Authors: Ito, M., Ibi, T., Sahashi, K. et al.
Source: Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Med Gas Res 1, 24 (2011).

DOI: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-24


HEW* is effective for mitochondrial dysfunction in MM** and inflammatory processes in DM***. Hydrogen may have a threshold effect or a dose-response effect and 1.0 liter or more per day of HEW is likely to be required to exert beneficial effects.

*HEW: Hydrogen-Enriched Water

**MM: Mitochondrial Myopathies

***DM: Dermatomyositis

To learn more about how Electrolyzed Reduced Water can help protect mitochondria, and where to get it, Click here

Molecular Hydrogen as an Emerging Therapeutic Medical Gas for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases

Source: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2012/353152/


Effects of hydrogen have been reported in 63 disease models and human diseases ... Only two diseases of cerebral infarction and metabolic syndrome have been analyzed in both rodents and humans. Lack of any adverse effects of hydrogen enabled clinical studies even in the absence of animal studies. Some other human studies including Parkinson’s disease are currently in progress, and promising effects of hydrogen are expected to emerge for many other human diseases.

Electrochemically Reduced Water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water

Authors: Takeki Hamasaki, Gakuro Harada, Noboru Nakamichi, Shigeru Kabayama, Kiichiro Teruya, Bunshi Fugetsu, Wei Gong, Ichiro Sakata, Sanetaka Shirahata (2017)

Source: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171192


We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water.

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Advanced Research on the Health Benefit of Reduced Water

Authors: Sanetaka Shirahata, Takeki Hamasaki, Kiichiro Teruya

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan (2012)

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924224411002408


Accumulating evidence has shown that reduced waters are health beneficial and they suppress oxidative stress-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and the side effects of hemodialysis. The mechanisms of action of reduced water for scavenging ROS are considered to be complicated. ...ERW suppresses neural cell death by oxidative stress (Kashiwagi et al., 2005). Hydrogen-supplemented water also exhibits various anti-neurodegenerative disease effects...

Both ROS scavenging effect and immuno-modulation effect might be responsible for anti-cancer effect of Alkaline Reduced Water.

Source: https://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110001080324/

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Additional Resources

This is the functional medicine doctor specializing in helping floxies, who helped us:

Source: https://www.doc-hugh.com/

Disabling Effects of Fluoroquinolones Mitigated by Antioxidants


He...found, in lab studies, that giving antioxidants alongside fluoroquinolones seems to mitigate the effects on mitochondria.

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-03267-5

What is the difference between Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones (FQs)?


Quinolones and fluoroquinolones consist of drugs which act as chemotherapeutic agents against bacteria... After the first generation of drugs were found to be active, it was noted that a fluorine atom at the 6-position of the quinoline ring imparted greater potency, and hence the second generation of drugs was called the fluoroquinolones.

Source: https://pharmaxchange.info/2011/05/mechanism-of-action-of-quinolones-and-fluoroquinolones/

Is Hydroxychloroquine a quinolone? (No, Chloroquine is Not a quinolone)

Source: https://www.reddit.com/r/floxies/comments/fh0kxq/chloroquin_vs_fluoroquinolones_a_chemists/

Are Fluoroquinolones Chemo Drugs? (Excellent, detailed info)

Source: https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/69563/are-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics-cipro-levaquin-etc-chemotherapy-drugs

Fluoroquinolones Chemotherapeutic (Medical Educational text. See Section B, #4)

Source: http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/antibio.html

Cipro, Levaquin and Avelox are Chemo Drugs (with references)

Source: https://www.hormonesmatter.com/cipro-levaquin-avelox-fluoroquinolones-chemo-drugs/

Both the fluoroquinolones and quinolones are synthetic chemotherapeutic antibacterial agents (Microbiology Text)

Source: https://microbiologyclass.com/ciprofloxacin/

Nonantibiotic Effects of Fluoroquinolones in Mammalian Cells

Authors: Sujan Badal, Yeng F. Her, L. James Maher, III

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4571980/

Source: https://www.thecaregrouppc.com/fda-finds-the-most-commonly-prescribed-antibiotic-from-1995-2016-has-disabling-side-effects-what-should-you-do/

Source: https://imcwc.com/html5-blank/floxed-by-fluoroquinolone-toxicity/

Source: https://neuromuscular.wustl.edu/mitosyn.html

Source: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class/fluoroquinolone-antimicrobial-drugs-information

Source: https://www.billiamjames.com/myth-of-floxing/


Source: http://s.bl-1.com/h/dcznrCDj?url=https://www.fixyourgut.com/use-the-antibiotic-flagyl-with-caution/

Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304416511001103

Water: Nature’s Elixir for Healthy Aging and Brain Health

Source: https://www.rightspinhealth.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Hydrogen_Water-Natures_Elixer.pdf

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